Maryland History - the history of Maryland
   
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Vacation 2 USA   >   Maryland   >   History
Vacation 2 USA   >   History   >   Maryland History

   
 

Maryland History


Before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is today Maryland was inhabited by various Native American peoples. When Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, these included the Accohannock and Powhatan on Maryland's Western shore, and Nanticoke on the eastern shore. However, the Native American peoples were relatively quickly pushed out of the state, with the last tribe, the Shawnee, leaving in the 1740s.

The first European explorers to reach Maryland where various expeditions under English, French and Spanish flags in the 16th century, however no permanent settlements were established until the following century.

In 1632, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (whose coat of arms appears on the Maryland flag) applied to King Charles I of England for a royal charter to establish a new province. George Calvert died before the charter could be granted, and the charter was instead granted to his son, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore later that same year. The first settlers, led by Cecil Calvert's younger brother, Leonard, departed from England in 1633, and landed on March 25th 1634 (a date that is still commemorated in the state each year as "Maryland Day").

The new colony of Maryland was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen consort of Charles I. The goal of the colony was to establish a safe haven for English Catholics (the Calverts themselves were Catholic), as well as to turn a profit. As a result, Maryland soon became one of only a handful of predominately Catholic regions in the English colonies in America. This was not without controversy: there were serious anti-Catholic revolts, which resulted in the temporary overthrow of the Calvert family in 1644 to 1646, and 1650 to 1658.

One interesting aspect of early Maryland history, is that the royal charter was based on an incorrect map that would have put Pennsylvania's major city of Philadelphia within Maryland. In 1750, the Penn family (who controlled Pennsylvania) and the Calvert family, agreed to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey a new boundary between the two colonies, which was named the Mason-Dixon line. Seventy years later, this line would become very important as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820: the expansion of slavery in the United States was only permitted South of this line.

During the American Revolution (1775 to 1783), Maryland, like many other colonies, was at first reluctant to split from Britain. Although no major battles took place within Maryland, the state did contribute important troops to the Continental Army, and it is probably from this contribution that the state gets the nickname "Old Line State". Additionally, the Continental Congress met for a few months in Baltimore in 1776 to 1777, and Annapolis also served as the US capital for just over seven months in 1783 to 1784.

Following the American Revolution the establishment of new permanent national capital was one of the first issues for the new government to address. A number of candidate cities were considered including Annapolis, but eventually it was decided to build a new capital (Washington D.C.). Maryland ceded approximately 61 square miles and Virginia approximately 39 square miles, to the federal government for this purpose (although Virginia's contribution was returned in 1846).

During the War of 1812, Maryland was the scene of two important battles. In 1814, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, and as result were able to capture Washington D.C. and burn many of the public buildings. The British navy also bombarded Fort McHenry (which defended Baltimore for 25 hours, but were unable to force its surrender: events there inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner" which was later to become the United States' national anthem.

During the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Maryland found itself in a difficult position as both a slave state and one of the border states that straddled both North and South. There was considerable popular support for the Confederate cause, but Maryland did not secede from the Union thanks to swift and firm action by Abraham Lincolm, and the eventual support of Governor Thomas H. Hicks (who had initially favored neutrality and preventing Union troops from crossing the state). Maryland would eventually provide about 25,000 troops for the Confederacy (mostly serving in the Army of North Virginia), and about 60,000 men for the Union (mostly serving garrison duty within the state).

Maryland was crossed by troops of both sides during the Civil War. The most important battle occurring in the state being the Battle of Antienam, which was fought on September 17th 1862 near Sharpsburg. The battle, fought between about 87,000 men on the Union side and 40,000 on the Confederate side, although tactically a draw, effectively ended Robert E. Lee's invasion of the North.

One of the most noteable events of the 20th century that took place in Maryland, was the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904. The fire burned for over 30 hours on February 7th and February 8th, and destroyed more than 1,526 buildings across 70 city blocks. As a result of the fire, more than 35,000 people were left unemployed.

Like many former slave states, Maryland struggled with civil rights issues for long after the Civil War. For example, in the early 20th century there was several legislative attempts to disenfranchise African-Americans using property qualifications. On a brighter note, the 1935 case of Murray v. Pearson et al resulted in the integration of the University of Maryland Law School. This was the first time that any court had overturned the 1896 Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson) approving racial segregation according to the "separate but equal" doctrine (although this particular new ruling had no authority outside Maryland).


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The Maryland Colony (True Books: American History (Paperback))

By Kevin Cunningham

Scholastic
Paperback (48 pages)

The Maryland Colony (True Books: American History (Paperback))
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A True Book-The Thirteen Colonies

Are you thrilled by true adventure stories? do you wonder how our founding fathers conquered the wilds of North America to create the United States? You'll experience it all in these books that tell the story of the brave men and women who escaped tyranny from across the ocean to forge a new world in 13 colonies that led to the birth of the United States of America.

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)

By Robert J. Brugger

Brand: Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (864 pages)

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)
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Maryland: A Middle Temperament explores the ironies, contradictions, and compromises that give "America's oldest border state" its special character. Extensively illustrated and accompanied by bibliography, maps, charts, and tables, Robert Brugger's vivid account of the state's political, economic, social, and cultural heritage―from the outfitting of Cecil Calvert's expedition to the opening of Baltimore's Harborplace―is rich in the issues and personalities that make up Maryland's story and explain its "middle temperament."

History of Maryland

Wentworth Press
Hardcover

History of Maryland
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.

This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.

As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Lost Baltimore

By Paul Kelsey Williams

Brand: Pavilion
Hardcover (144 pages)

Lost Baltimore
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A celebration of the cherished parts of Baltimore that are no longer
 
Baltimore today is visited by millions of tourists who come to see the world-famous Inner Harbor, sample mouth-watering blue crabs, take in an Orioles game at legendary Camden Yards, or explore the many cultural and higher education institutions. Locals, meanwhile, enjoy living in a city that is large enough to provide great restaurants and plenty of special events, while it retains its small-town attitude that has earned it its “Charm City” nickname. However, many locals and tourists may not know that Baltimore was once a bustling port city where manufacturing, shipping, and shipbuilding dominated the industrial center of downtown Baltimore.
 
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Lost Baltimore also covers important historical events that have shaped the physical landscape and societal fabric of Baltimore—the heartbreaking move by the Baltimore Colts in 1984, Baltimore’s early dominance as the headquarters of national political conventions, Prohibition’s effect on the German breweries, the city’s changing industrial and commercial makeup, as well as some of the most recent hotly contested historical preservation battles. Open these pages and take a step back in time to reveal the Baltimore that once was.

The History of Maryland: From Its First Settlement, in 1633, to the Restoration, in 1660 ; with a Copious Introduction, and Notes and Illustrations

By Anonymous

Ulan Press
Released: 2011-06-05
Paperback (330 pages)

The History of Maryland: From Its First Settlement, in 1633, to the Restoration, in 1660 ; with a Copious Introduction, and Notes and Illustrations
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This book was originally published prior to 1923, and represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work. While some publishers have opted to apply OCR (optical character recognition) technology to the process, we believe this leads to sub-optimal results (frequent typographical errors, strange characters and confusing formatting) and does not adequately preserve the historical character of the original artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages, poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to either the quality of the original work or the scanning process itself. Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible historical reprints. We appreciate your understanding of these occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the original publisher.

51 Old Books Maryland History & Genealogy on DVD Ancestry, Records, Family

DVD-ROM

51 Old Books Maryland History & Genealogy on DVD Ancestry, Records, Family
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The Ultimate History and Genealogy Collection of Maryland

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Partial List of Contents

Genealogical and Memorial Encyclopedia of the State of Maryland: A Record...Volume 1 by Richard Henry Spencer, American Historical Society - 1919 - 336 pages

Genealogy and biography of leading families of the city of Baltimore and Baltimore County, Maryland - (1897) - 1057 pages

General index of wills of St. Mary's County, Maryland, 1633-1900 by Margaret Roberts Hodges - (1921) - 139 pages

Marriage licenses of Caroline County, Maryland, 1774-1815 by Henry Downes Cranor - (1904) - 62 pages

History and Roster of Maryland Volunteers, War of 1861-5 by Maryland Commission on Publication of the Histories of the Maryland Volunteers during the Civil War- 1898 - 846 pages

The Maryland Directory: being a descriptive compilation of the counties, towns, villages and post offices, and names of merchants ... and other new and valuable information never before published by J. Frank Lewis - (1878) - 607 pages

+ Plus 45 more books!

Voices from Colonial America: Maryland 1634-1776 (National Geographic Voices from ColonialAmerica)

By Robin Doak

Brand: National Geographic Children's Books
Released: 2007-12-11
Hardcover (112 pages)

Voices from Colonial America: Maryland 1634-1776 (National Geographic Voices from ColonialAmerica)
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First-person accounts, archival illustrations, and historic maps reveal Maryland's rich history. Discover how the colony was founded by Catholics yet largely settled by Protestants; how it was uniquely ruled by a single proprietor; why a ton of tea was burned in Annapolis; how tobacco and wheat were often used as money; and why the American Revolution ended here.

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The Road to Jim Crow: The African American Struggle on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, 1860–1915

By C. Christopher Brown

The Maryland Historical Society
Paperback (356 pages)

The Road to Jim Crow: The African American Struggle on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, 1860–1915
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Making extensive use of primary sources, C. Christopher Brown has broken new ground and filled a long overlooked gap in Maryland history. Here is the story of African Americans on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, from the promise-filled days following the end of slavery to the rise of lynch law, segregation, and systematic efforts at disenfranchisement. Resisting, as best they could, attempts of the Democratic "White Man’s Party" to render them second-class citizens, black communities rallied to their churches and fought determinedly to properly educate their children and gain a measure of political power. The Eastern Shore's Cambridge, guided by savvy and energetic leaders, became a political and cultural center of African American life.

Maryland, My Maryland: The Cultural Cleansing of a Small Southern State

By Joyce Bennett

Shotwell Publishing LLC
Paperback (214 pages)

Maryland, My Maryland: The Cultural Cleansing of a Small Southern State
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MARYLAND WAS FOUNDED as a plantation colony like Virginia and its way of life did not differ greatly from Virginia’s. Everybody knows that the “Star-Spangled Banner” was written by Francis Scott Key as he watched the British attack on Fort McHenry in Baltimore harbour during the War of 1812. But few know that in 1861 Francis Key Howard, the grandson of Francis Scott Key, wrote this of his grandfather: The flag which then he so proudly hailed, I saw waving at the same place over the victims as vulgar and brutal a despotism as modern times have witnessed. Howard was one of the many Marylanders who were political prisoners of Abraham Lincoln, arrested to prevent the people of Maryland from ever having an opportunity to vote on secession. As soon as Union occupiers departed at the end of the War for Southern Independence, Maryland elected conservative Southern Democrats to office, a practice that continued well into the 20th century. Joyce Bennett is a patriot holding a last outpost of the real Maryland. She knows the history and original culture of her commonwealth. She has watched that pleasant and very American culture — its speech, manners, cuisine, attitudes, and traditions — being vigourously wiped out by newcomers who have turned Maryland into a mere minor part of the northeastern megalopolis. The things sadly lost are the things that constitute civilization and create community. ______ P.S. - This book was originally published by the author under the title Letters from the Outpost. P.P.S. - This title is enrolled in Kindle MatchBook. FREE if print edition is purchased on Amazon.

History of Talbot County, Maryland, 1661-1861 - Primary Source Edition

By Oswald Tilghman

Nabu Press
Paperback (674 pages)

History of Talbot County, Maryland, 1661-1861 - Primary Source Edition
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This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.


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