History of the USA - the history of the United States of America
   
Vacation 2 USA

Travel & Tourism
 Calendars
 Camping
 Cookbooks
 Cycling
 Fishing
 Flights
 Golf
 Guide Books
 Hiking
 History
 Hotels
 Luggage
 Rental Cars
 Skiing
 Top Attractions
 US Flag
 Links

Cities
 Atlanta
 Baltimore
 Boston
 Chicago
 Dallas
 Detroit
 Denver
 Honolulu
 Houston
 Las Vegas
 Los Angeles
 Miami
 New Orleans
 New York
 Orlando
 Philadelphia
 Phoenix
 Pittsburgh
 San Antonio
 San Diego
 San Francisco
 Seattle
 Tampa
 Washington D.C.

Attractions & Resorts
 The Alamo
 Alcatraz
 Broadway Theatre
 Busch Gardens Africa
 Disneyland Resort
 Empire State Building
 Fisherman's Wharf
 Gateway Arch
 Golden Gate Bridge
 Grand Canyon
 Jefferson Memorial
 Kennedy Space Center
 Lincoln Memorial
 Mount Rushmore
 Napa Valley
 Niagara Falls
 Statue of Liberty
 Walt Disney World
 Washington Monument
 White House
 Yellowstone
 Yosemite
 More US Attractions

Destinations
 Alabama
 Alaska
 American Samoa
 Arizona
 Arkansas
 California
 Colorado
 Connecticut
 Delaware
 Florida
 Georgia
 Guam
 Hawaii
 Idaho
 Illinois
 Indiana
 Iowa
 Kansas
 Kentucky
 Louisiana
 Maine
 Maryland
 Massachusetts
 Michigan
 Minnesota
 Mississippi
 Missouri
 Montana
 Nebraska
 Nevada
 New Hampshire
 New Jersey
 New Mexico
 New York
 North Carolina
 North Dakota
 Northern Mariana Islands
 Ohio
 Oklahoma
 Oregon
 Pennsylvania
 Puerto Rico
 Rhode Island
 South Carolina
 South Dakota
 Tennessee
 Texas
 Utah
 Vermont
 Virgin Islands
 Virginia
 Washington
 Washington D.C.
 West Virginia
 Wisconsin
 Wyoming
 
   














































   
Vacation 2 USA   >   History

   
 

History


Humans are believed to have first reached North America around 20,000 years ago, by crossing the Bering land bridge from Asia. These people settled and became the indigenous inhabitants of the Americas prior to the arrival of the Europeans.

The first European settlement in North America was established by Leif Erikson and the Vikings in 1000 AD, in what is today Newfoundland. However, this colony did not last for long, and it was several hundred years before Europeans reached the continent again. It has also been claimed that muslim explorers from Spain or Northwest Africa may have reached the continent, but this claim remains disputed.

The first European that is certain to have reached United States territory is Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico in 1492. Following Columbus, more and more Europeans began to arrive in the Americas, and the first expedition to what is not the continental United states was made by the Spaniard, Juan Ponce de León who is known to have explored Florida in 1513.

As the Americas were gradually explored, a variety of European countries including Denmark, France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden, began to establish permanent colonies in the New World. In North America, the most successful of these was Great Britain, which by the end of the Seven Years War (known in the US as the "French and Indian War") had conquered most of the French territory in North America.

However, with the removal of the French military threat, disputes began to arise between Great Britain and her colonists over issues like taxation. These disputes eventually culiminated in American Revolution (1775 to 1783) which resulted in the formation of the United States from 13 former British colonies which had won their independence in the Revolutionary War.

Additional lands were gradually acquired by the US from France, Spain, the United Kingdom and Mexico, and within a century, the United States stretched across the entire North American continent. In 1867, Alaska was purchased from Russia. Further terroritorial acquistions followed with the annexation of Hawaii (1898), and following the Spanish-American war, of Puerto Rico. The final major addition to the US was the purchase of the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.

The US has not been without difficulties during its history, the most noteable of these being the American Civil War (1861 to 1865) which was fought over the issues of slavery and states' rights. In the American Civil War, a large (Southern) part of the country, tried (ultimately unsuccessfully) to secede from the Union in an attempt to prevent the abolition of slavery, as well as to main and increase the individual states' rights.

In the 20th century, the US participated in both World Wars, and was on the victorious side in both conflicts. Following the end of World War II, the US engaged for over 40 years in a political, economic and military conflict with the USSR, known as the Cold War.

Today, the US is the most powerful country in the world, both economically and militarily, and US cultural influences can be seen all over the world in food, music, movies and the arts. Despite this, the US is today not without challenges, most notably the threat of terrorism, which was dramatically brought to the world's attention with the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001.

For more detailed history on any state or territory, please select:

 
  • Alabama History
  • Alaska History
  • American Samoa History
  • Arizona History
  • Arkansas History
  • California History
  • Colorado History
  • Connecticut History
  • Delaware History
  • Florida History
  • Georgia History
  • Guam History
  • Hawaii History
  • Idaho History
  • Illinois History
  • Indiana History
  • Iowa History
  • Kansas History
  • Kentucky History
  • Louisiana History
  • Maine History
  • Maryland History
  • Massachusetts History
  • Michigan History
  • Minnesota History
  • Mississippi History
  • Missouri History
  • Montana History
  • Nebraska History
  • Nevada History
  • New Hampshire History
  • New Jersey History
  • New Mexico History
  • New York History
  • North Carolina History
  • North Dakota History
  • Northern Mariana Islands History
  • Ohio History
  • Oklahoma History
  • Oregon History
  • Pennsylvania History
  • Puerto Rico History
  • Rhode Island History
  • South Carolina History
  • South Dakota History
  • Tennessee History
  • Texas History
  • Utah History
  • Vermont History
  • Virgin Islands History
  • Virginia History
  • Washington History
  • Washington D.C. History
  • West Virginia History
  • Wisconsin History
  • Wyoming History

  • Here are some books about the history of the United States:


    Disclosure: Products details and descriptions provided by Amazon.com. Our company may receive a payment if you purchase products from them after following a link from this website.

    A People's History of the United States

    By Howard Zinn

    Harper Perennial Modern Classics
    Released: 2015-11-17
    Paperback (784 pages)

    A People s History of the United States
    List Price: $19.99*
    Lowest New Price: $10.88*
    Lowest Used Price: $7.84*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    • Harper Perennial Modern Classics
    Product Description:

    "A wonderful, splendid book--a book that should be ready by every American, student or otherwise, who wants to understand his country, its true history, and its hope for the future." --Howard Fast

    With a new introduction by Anthony Arnove, this edition of the classic national bestseller chronicles American history from the bottom up, throwing out the official narrative taught in schools—with its emphasis on great men in high places—to focus on the street, the home and the workplace.

    Known for its lively, clear prose as well as its scholarly research, A People's History of the United States is the only volume to tell America's story from the point of view of—and in the words of—America's women, factory workers, African-Americans, Native Americans, the working poor, and immigrant laborers. As historian Howard Zinn shows, many of our country's greatest battles—the fights for a fair wage, an eight-hour workday, child-labor laws, health and safety standards, universal suffrage, women's rights, racial equality—were carried out at the grassroots level, against bloody resistance.

    Covering Christopher Columbus's arrival through President Clinton's first term, A People's History of the United States features insightful analysis of the most important events in our history. 

    An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States (ReVisioning American History)

    By Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz

    Beacon Press
    Released: 2015-08-11
    Paperback (312 pages)

    An Indigenous Peoples  History of the United States (ReVisioning American History)
    List Price: $16.00*
    Lowest New Price: $10.66*
    Lowest Used Price: $7.45*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    • Beacon Press
    Product Description:
    2015 Recipient of the American Book Award

    The first history of the United States told from the perspective of indigenous peoples

     
    Today in the United States, there are more than five hundred federally recognized Indigenous nations comprising nearly three million people, descendants of the fifteen million Native people who once inhabited this land. The centuries-long genocidal program of the US settler-colonial regimen has largely been omitted from history. Now, for the first time, acclaimed historian and activist Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz offers a history of the United States told from the perspective of Indigenous peoples and reveals how Native Americans, for centuries, actively resisted expansion of the US empire.

    In An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States, Dunbar-Ortiz adroitly challenges the founding myth of the United States and shows how policy against the Indigenous peoples was colonialist and designed to seize the territories of the original inhabitants, displacing or eliminating them. And as Dunbar-Ortiz reveals, this policy was praised in popular culture, through writers like James Fenimore Cooper and Walt Whitman, and in the highest offices of government and the military. Shockingly, as the genocidal policy reached its zenith under President Andrew Jackson, its ruthlessness was best articulated by US Army general Thomas S. Jesup, who, in 1836, wrote of the Seminoles: “The country can be rid of them only by exterminating them.”
     
    Spanning more than four hundred years, this classic bottom-up peoples’ history radically reframes US history and explodes the silences that have haunted our national narrative.

    A Young People's History of the United States: Columbus to the War on Terror (For Young People Series)

    By Howard Zinn

    Triangle Square
    Released: 2009-06-02
    Paperback (464 pages)

    A Young People s History of the United States: Columbus to the War on Terror (For Young People Series)
    List Price: $22.95*
    Lowest New Price: $13.27*
    Lowest Used Price: $4.08*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    • Triangle Square
    Product Description:
    A Young People's History of the United States brings to US history the viewpoints of workers, slaves, immigrants, women, Native Americans, and others whose stories, and their impact, are rarely included in books for young people. A Young People's History of the United States is also a companion volume to The People Speak, the film adapted from A People's History of the United States and Voices of a People’s History of the United States.
    Beginning with a look at Christopher Columbus’s arrival through the eyes of the Arawak Indians, then leading the reader through the struggles for workers’ rights, women’s rights, and civil rights during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and ending with the current protests against continued American imperialism, Zinn in the volumes of A Young People’s History of the United States presents a radical new way of understanding America’s history. In so doing, he reminds readers that America’s true greatness is shaped by our dissident voices, not our military generals.

    An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States for Young People (ReVisioning American History for Young People)

    By Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz

    Beacon Press
    Released: 2019-07-23
    Paperback (272 pages)

    An Indigenous Peoples  History of the United States for Young People (ReVisioning American History for Young People)
    List Price: $18.95*
    Lowest New Price: $12.14*
    Lowest Used Price: $11.96*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    Product Description:
    Spanning more than 400 years, this classic bottom-up history examines the legacy of Indigenous peoples’ resistance, resilience, and steadfast fight against imperialism.

    Going beyond the story of America as a country “discovered” by a few brave men in the “New World,” Indigenous human rights advocate Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz reveals the roles that settler colonialism and policies of American Indian genocide played in forming our national identity.

    The original academic text is fully adapted by renowned curriculum experts Debbie Reese and Jean Mendoza, for middle-grade and young adult readers to include discussion topics, archival images, original maps, recommendations for further reading, and other materials to encourage students, teachers, and general readers to think critically about their own place in history.

    A Patriot's History of the United States: From Columbus's Great Discovery to America's Age of Entitlement, Revised Edition

    By Larry Schweikart

    WaterBrook Press
    Released: 2014-11-25
    Paperback (1008 pages)

    A Patriot s History of the United States: From Columbus s Great Discovery to America s Age of Entitlement, Revised Edition
    List Price: $27.00*
    Lowest New Price: $16.55*
    Lowest Used Price: $4.40*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    • Sentinel
    Product Description:

    Revised and updated, this 15th anniversary edition of the #1 New York Times bestseller salutes America’s true and proud history.
     
    Fifteen years ago, Professors Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen set out to correct the doctrinaire biases that had distorted the way America’s past is taught – and they succeeded. A Patriot’s History of the United States is the definitive objective history of our country, presented honestly and fairly.
     
    Schweikart and Allen don’t ignore America’s mistakes through the years. Instead, they put them back in the proper perspective, celebrating the strengths of the men and women who cleared the wilderness, abolished slavery, and rid the world of fascism and communism.
     
    Now in this revised fifteenth-anniversary edition, a new generation of readers will learn the truth about America’s discovery, founding, and advancement, from Columbus’s voyage to Trump’s promise to “Make America Great Again."

    An African American and Latinx History of the United States (ReVisioning American History)

    By Paul Ortiz

    Beacon Press
    Released: 2018-12-11
    Paperback (296 pages)

    An African American and Latinx History of the United States (ReVisioning American History)
    List Price: $16.00*
    Lowest New Price: $10.69*
    Lowest Used Price: $6.48*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    Product Description:
    An intersectional history of the shared struggle for African American and Latinx civil rights

    Spanning more than two hundred years, An African American and Latinx History of the United States is a revolutionary, politically charged narrative history, arguing that the “Global South” was crucial to the development of America as we know it. Scholar and activist Paul Ortiz challenges the notion of westward progress as exalted by widely taught formulations like “manifest destiny” and “Jacksonian democracy,” and shows how placing African American, Latinx, and Indigenous voices unapologetically front and center transforms US history into one of the working class organizing against imperialism.

    Drawing on rich narratives and primary source documents, Ortiz links racial segregation in the Southwest and the rise and violent fall of a powerful tradition of Mexican labor organizing in the twentieth century, to May 1, 2006, known as International Workers’ Day, when migrant laborers—Chicana/os, Afrocubanos, and immigrants from every continent on earth—united in resistance on the first “Day Without Immigrants.” As African American civil rights activists fought Jim Crow laws and Mexican labor organizers warred against the suffocating grip of capitalism, Black and Spanish-language newspapers, abolitionists, and Latin American revolutionaries coalesced around movements built between people from the United States and people from Central America and the Caribbean. In stark contrast to the resurgence of “America First” rhetoric, Black and Latinx intellectuals and organizers today have historically urged the United States to build bridges of solidarity with the nations of the Americas.

    Incisive and timely, this bottom-up history, told from the interconnected vantage points of Latinx and African Americans, reveals the radically different ways that people of the diaspora have addressed issues still plaguing the United States today, and it offers a way forward in the continued struggle for universal civil rights.

    2018 Winner of the PEN Oakland/Josephine Miles Literary Award

    These Truths: A History of the United States

    By Jill Lepore

    W. W. Norton & Company
    Released: 2018-09-18
    Hardcover (960 pages)

    These Truths: A History of the United States
    List Price: $39.95*
    Lowest New Price: $16.95*
    Lowest Used Price: $15.98*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    Product Description:

    New York Times Bestseller

    In the most ambitious one volume American history in decades, award winning historian and New Yorker writer Jill Lepore offers a magisterial account of the origins and rise of a divided nation, an urgently needed reckoning with the beauty and tragedy of American history.

    Written in elegiac prose, Lepore’s groundbreaking investigation places truth itself―a devotion to facts, proof, and evidence―at the center of the nation’s history. The American experiment rests on three ideas―"these truths," Jefferson called them―political equality, natural rights, and the sovereignty of the people. And it rests, too, on a fearless dedication to inquiry, Lepore argues, because self government depends on it. But has the nation, and democracy itself, delivered on that promise?

    These Truths tells this uniquely American story, beginning in 1492, asking whether the course of events over more than five centuries has proven the nation’s truths, or belied them. To answer that question, Lepore traces the intertwined histories of American politics, law, journalism, and technology, from the colonial town meeting to the nineteenth century party machine, from talk radio to twenty first century Internet polls, from Magna Carta to the Patriot Act, from the printing press to Facebook News.

    Along the way, Lepore’s sovereign chronicle is filled with arresting sketches of both well known and lesser known Americans, from a parade of presidents and a rogues’ gallery of political mischief makers to the intrepid leaders of protest movements, including Frederick Douglass, the famed abolitionist orator; William Jennings Bryan, the three time presidential candidate and ultimately tragic populist; Pauli Murray, the visionary civil rights strategist; and Phyllis Schlafly, the uncredited architect of modern conservatism.

    Americans are descended from slaves and slave owners, from conquerors and the conquered, from immigrants and from people who have fought to end immigration. "A nation born in contradiction will fight forever over the meaning of its history," Lepore writes, but engaging in that struggle by studying the past is part of the work of citizenship. "The past is an inheritance, a gift and a burden," These Truths observes. "It can’t be shirked. There’s nothing for it but to get to know it."

    127 illustrations

    AP United States History: With Online Tests (Barron's Test Prep)

    By Eugene V. Resnick M.A.

    Barrons Educational Series
    Released: 2018-08-01
    Paperback (576 pages)

    AP United States History: With Online Tests (Barron s Test Prep)
    List Price: $23.99*
    Lowest New Price: $14.79*
    Lowest Used Price: $9.86*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    Product Description:
    Barron’s AP United States History: With Online Tests is aligned with the current exam and includes comprehensive subject review from an AP expert. Five realistic practice tests help students feel prepared for the exam.

    This edition includes:
    • Five full-length practice tests: three online and two printed in the book, all with detailed answer explanations
    • Test-taking strategies for answering multiple choice, short answer, long essay, and document-based questions
    • Comprehensive review of all topics on the AP U.S. History curriculum, including pre-contact American Indian societies and the evolution of Colonial society; the American Revolution; the Civil War and Reconstruction; the growth of industrial America; World War I; the Great Depression; World War II; the Cold War; America in the age of Clinton, Bush, and Obama; and much more

    A Queer History of the United States for Young People (ReVisioning American History for Young People)

    By Michael Bronski

    Beacon Press
    Released: 2019-06-11
    Paperback (336 pages)

    A Queer History of the United States for Young People (ReVisioning American History for Young People)
    List Price: $18.95*
    Lowest New Price: $11.87*
    Lowest Used Price: $8.77*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    Product Description:
    Queer history didn’t start with Stonewall. This book explores how LGBTQ people have always been a part of our national identity, contributing to the country and culture for over 400 years.

    It is crucial for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth to know their history. But this history is not easy to find since it’s rarely taught in schools or commemorated in other ways. A Queer History of the United States for Young People corrects this and demonstrates that LGBTQ people have long been vital to shaping our understanding of what America is today.

    Through engrossing narratives, letters, drawings, poems, and more, the book encourages young readers, of all identities, to feel pride at the accomplishments of the LGBTQ people who came before them and to use history as a guide to the future. The stories he shares include those of

    * Indigenous tribes who embraced same-sex relationships and a multiplicity of gender identities.
    * Emily Dickinson, brilliant nineteenth-century poet who wrote about her desire for women.
    * Gladys Bentley, Harlem blues singer who challenged restrictive cross-dressing laws in the 1920s.
    * Bayard Rustin, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s close friend, civil rights organizer, and an openly gay man.
    * Sylvia Rivera, cofounder of STAR, the first transgender activist group in the US in 1970.
    * Kiyoshi Kuromiya, civil rights and antiwar activist who fought for people living with AIDS.
    * Jamie Nabozny, activist who took his LGBTQ school bullying case to the Supreme Court.
    * Aidan DeStefano, teen who brought a federal court case for trans-inclusive bathroom policies.
    * And many more!

    With over 60 illustrations and photos, a glossary, and a corresponding curriculum, A Queer History of the United States for Young People will be vital for teachers who want to introduce a new perspective to America’s story.

    A Little History of the United States (Little Histories)

    By James West Davidson

    Yale University Press
    Released: 2016-09-13
    Paperback (344 pages)

    A Little History of the United States (Little Histories)
    List Price: $15.00*
    Lowest New Price: $1.99*
    Lowest Used Price: $1.99*
    Usually ships in 24 hours*
    *(As of 00:07 Pacific 22 Nov 2019 More Info)


    Click Here
    • Yale University Press
    Product Description:
    A fast-paced, character-filled history that brings the unique American saga to life for readers of all ages

    How did a land and people of such immense diversity come together under a banner of freedom and equality to form one of the most remarkable nations in the world? Everyone from young adults to grandparents will be fascinated by the answers uncovered in James West Davidson’s vividly told A Little History of the United States. In 300 fast-moving pages, Davidson guides his readers through 500 years, from the first contact between the two halves of the world to the rise of America as a superpower in an era of atomic perils and diminishing resources.
     
    In short, vivid chapters the book brings to life hundreds of individuals whose stories are part of the larger American story. Pilgrim William Bradford stumbles into an Indian deer trap on his first day in America; Harriet Tubman lets loose a pair of chickens to divert attention from escaping slaves; the toddler Andrew Carnegie, later an ambitious industrial magnate, gobbles his oatmeal with a spoon in each hand. Such stories are riveting in themselves, but they also spark larger questions to ponder about freedom, equality, and unity in the context of a nation that is, and always has been, remarkably divided and diverse.


    Your Comments


    Please share your comments about the history of the USA:

       
    Click here
     
     

     
     
    Note: Our company does NOT provide travel, vacation, hotel, car rental services or associated products or services. Any links (including but not limited to banners, text links, or search forms) to such items on this web site are adverts from third parties. Sorry we can NOT answer questions about these types of products or services.

    Unless specifically noted on the page in question, our company is NOT associated with any particular destinations, resorts, attractions or places of interest that may be described on this website. In such cases, we have often provided links to the official sites where possible, or other third party sites containing useful information, purely as a courtesy and for informational purposes only.

    All information about attractions, places of interest, travel destinations, travel services, etc., was believed to be correct at the time it was prepared, but may be change at any time. Readers are advised to check with the facility/resort operator, their travel agent, travel provider, or the attraction operator, for current information.


    Copyright © 2006-2019, Answers 2000 Limited

    CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
    CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE,COMES FROM AMAZON EU S. r.l. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.

    Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures

    Our sites use cookies, some of which may already be set on your computer. Use of our site constitutes consent for this. For details, please see Privacy.

    Click privacy for information about our company's privacy, data collection and data retention policies, and your rights.

    Contact Us   Privacy   Terms of Use   Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures


    In Association With Amazon.com
    Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
    In Association With Amazon.co.uk
    Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.co.uk.
    As an Amazon Associate, our company earns from qualifying purchases. Amazon, the Amazon logo, Endless, and the Endless logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates.


    All trademarks are property of their respective owners.
    All third party content and adverts are copyright of their respective owners.

    Some graphics on our web sites are Copyright (C) 1997-2000 Hemera Technologies Inc., and used under license. All such pictures are provided for viewing purposes only and are not to be saved or downloaded. All such pictures of recognizable individuals are models and used for illustrative purposes only, and not meant to imply any association or endorsement of said individual with any product or service.